Elmira was 20 years old, when she became pregnant. She was our classmate. We haven’t seen her beautiful smile for three years now because she has died. She used to make very tasty cakes. Everyone joked, that she will be the first to get married in our class. But we could not attend her wedding party because she died giving birth to a beautiful baby girl Aydana. She never had a chance to get to know her baby.
Every specialist calls these death different names. Doctors have given it a particular name, the sociologist maternal mortality, generally a tragedy for humanity. According to the World Health Organization, «A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.» In the official document of the Millennium Development Goals, Maternal morality is defined as the death of a woman, caused by pregnancy, is independent of duration and localization, which began in the period of pregnancy, during 42 days after its end from any reason, connected with the pregnancy, burdened by it or its flow, but not from an accidental or randomly emergent reason. Globally, more than 500,000 women die in pregnancy or childbirth annually. In the developing world, the risk of dying in childbirth is one in 48, even though virtually all countries now have safe motherhood programs.
There are 7.752 million women living in Kazakhstan, which comprises 51.8% of the total population. 54.6% of them are women of reproductive age. And at present, maternal mortality is fast becoming a problem stemming from the social state of the country, but not in the literal sense of the disease.
The following points are possible ways or solutions to bring an end to this problem: more education on reproductive health, family planning, the sanitation of women, especially among the young people, the healthy means of life and a healthy ecology.
This has now become a worldwide problem, but not much is said about it. But with the Millennium Development Goals, a special chapter has been set aside for maternal mortality. And we need to recognize that maternal mortality is not only a woman’s problem.
Though the issue has been high on the international agenda for two decades, ratios of maternal mortality seem to have changed little in regions where most deaths occur (sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia).
Unreliable data and wide margins of uncertainty make it difficult to tell for sure. Adequate reproductive health services and family planning are essential in improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality.
But some 200 million women who wish to space or limit their childbearing lack access to contraception. Skilled attendants at delivery, backed up by referrals to timely emergency obstetric care, can reduce deaths further, as a growing number of countries have demonstrated.
Three regions show dramatic gains in the number of assisted deliveries. Proportion of deliveries attended by skilled health care personnel, 1990 and 2004 (Percentage) Skilled care at delivery is one of the key elements necessary to reduce maternal mortality. Though all regions show improvement, only per cent of deliveries in sub-Saharan Africa, where almost half the world’s maternal deaths occur, are assisted by skilled attendants. In Southern Asia, the proportion is even lower. Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Northern Africa have made the most headway, with increases in attended births of between and almost 80 per cent. In the vulnerable period of childbirth, poor and rural women are short-changed within countries; the presence of a skilled attendant at delivery is the most inequitably distributed among child and maternal health indicators. Impoverished and rural women are far less likely than their urban or wealthier counterparts to receive skilled care during childbirth. Inequality between urban and rural care at delivery is particularly significant in sub-Saharan Africa: For countries with data, urban women are over three times more likely to deliver with health personnel than women in rural areas. And women in the wealthiest fifth of the population are six times more likely to deliver with a health professional than those in the poorest fifth. Redressing these inequities will require continued analysis of trends matched by targeted policies.
RAF programm UN, NY